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# Blogging About R Code with R Markdown, Knitr, and Jekyll.

I’ve been blogging with Jekyll for a while now, where most of my blogs contain snippets of R code. Previously, my workflow was somewhat sloppy: I would copy-paste the snippets of R code into my .md file along with the expected output of the code (e.g. printing a data.frame or number). However, I often ran into problems where I would change the code snippet but forget to change the output, thus creating disagreements between what the code snippet was doing and the expected output I had copy-pasted in previously. There’s also the possibility that the R code had errors, but I wouldn’t know because my blog posts weren’t derived directly from the R code itself.

Now, I’ve started writing my blog posts in R markdown (a .Rmd file), then using knitr to convert that .Rmd file into a .md file. This solves the main two problems described above. With this new workflow:

• The output is ensured to agree with what the R code is doing.
• There will not be any errors in my R code, because knitr will stop and throw an error instead of creating the .md file.

The rest of this blog post assumes a basic knowledge of Jekyll and that you plan to use it with GitHub pages.

The following walkthrough refers to this live example. My new workflow is as follows:

Begin with a .Rmd file in the _drafts directory. Name it according to Jekyll standards, which is lowercase words separated by hyphens. I’ll name mine exploring-the-cars-dataset.Rmd and start with the default content that’s there when you create a new R Markdown file in RStudio.

Edit the front matter as needed. I remove output: html_document and add the necessary layout: default setting that I’m using in my example blog.

Make sure to set the fig.path if you’ll be generating any figures. In my example, a plot of the cars dataset is generated and I want Jekyll to look in my images directory for this .png file. So, I’ll set the fig.path to {{ site.url }}/images/exploring-the-cars-dataset- as a global chunk option:

knitr::opts_chunk\$set(fig.path='{{ site.url }}/images/exploring-the-cars-dataset-')


This will name any generated .png files exploring-the-cars-dataset-{chunklabel}, where the chunklabel is whatever you labeled the R chunk that generated the plot. Read more about chunk options here. Getting these .png files into the correct directory is explained in the next step and script.

Convert the .Rmd file to a .md file with knitr. The following script, which I’ve named r2jekyll.R and placed in the _drafts directory, takes a specificied .Rmd file sitting in the _drafts directory and places a knitted .md file in the _posts directory with the current date appended to the front (this is the Jekyll standard for naming posts). It also moves any .png files that were generated to the images directory.

#!/usr/bin/env Rscript
library(knitr)

# Get the filename given as an argument in the shell.
args = commandArgs(TRUE)
filename = args[1]

# Check that it's a .Rmd file.
if(!grepl(".Rmd", filename)) {
stop("You must specify a .Rmd file.")
}

# Knit and place in _posts.
dir = paste0("../_posts/", Sys.Date(), "-")
output = paste0(dir, sub('.Rmd', '.md', filename))
knit(filename, output)

# Copy .png files to the images directory.
fromdir = "{{ site.url }}/images"
todir = "../images"

pics = list.files(fromdir, ".png")
pics = sapply(pics, function(x) paste(fromdir, x, sep="/"))
file.copy(pics, todir)


Be sure to make r2jekyll.R executable with chmod +x r2jekyll.R. Then, to convert my .Rmd file to a .md file and take care of any .png file housekeeping, I navigate to my _drafts directory and execute in the terminal:

./r2jekyll.R exploring-the-cars-dataset.Rmd


If you find the "{{ site.url }}" directory within the _drafts directory terribly unsightly, you can add the following line to the above script:

unlink("{{ site.url }}", recursive=T)


Preview your post with jekyll serve.

jekyll serve


This allows me to open my browser and preview the post at http://localhost:4000 before pushing it to my repository.

See the code for this example blog here.